Critical Thinking and Effective Decision Making
2.1 What Is Critical Thinking?
Critical thinking is the art of raising what is subconscious in our reasoning to the level of conscious recognition. It is the art of taking control of our thinking processes so as to understand the pathway and inputs that our thinking employs. Critical thinkers understand the mechanics of reasoning (thinking). They use this understanding to manage the unconscious influences that contribute to their decision-making processes. By taking charge of the thinking process, critical thinkers develop an understanding of what they do not know about a particular subject, and make better decisions as a result.
2.2 Who Needs Critical Thinking?
The study of critical thinking is the study of reasoning. Implicit in this study is the recognition that if we are to become better thinkers, our thinking skills must be practiced and developed, just like any other skill set. Advocates of critical thinking believe that critical thinking is a philosophical perspective that can help anyone to become more successful. The logic behind this belief is that everyone can benefit from becoming a better thinker and as a result, have greater control over their thinking processes. In the business world, a critical thinking approach to problem solving improves the quality of analysis, resulting in a more balanced, reasoned decision-making process.
To become a critical thinker is to become an effective critic of your own thinking. This involves an analysis of the inputs (information, assumptions, and biases) that form part of your reasoning, as well as the outputs (decisions, assumptions, and biases) that result from your reasoning. AS part of your development as a critical thinker you learn to gauge and measure the outputs of other people’s thinking (which are your inputs), and as a consequence develop improved decision-making skills.
2.2.2 Are You a Critical Thinker?
Most people, particularly anyone with higher education, consider themselves to be critical thinkers. Unfortunately, quality thinking does not come naturally to most people (maybe to no one) and our education system does not fill the gap. Critical thinking is the discipline of making sure that you use the best thinking that you are capable of in every situation. To become a skilled critical thinker it is necessary to understand thought processes and to use that understanding to structure your analysis of anything and everything, in a balanced way. What are the symptoms of being a critical thinker? The indicator that someone is practicing critical thinking (to some degree) is that they continually question their own and other people’s assumptions, reasons, motivations, and outlook. This questioning must not focus on generating mere contradiction but rather on the discovery of context, reasoning, and point of view. Critical thinkers ask questions to answer questions and seek reason and logic as the foundation for understanding.
2.2.3 Role of Critical Thinking
In effect, what critical thinking does for us is to put the extent of our real understanding (knowledge) into perspective. It illustrates what we do and do not know about a subject by revealing the nature and significance of assumptions and gaps in information. Critical thinkers recognize everyone’s tendency towards lazy thinking and make the effort to really ‘think hard’. The surprising outcome of critical thinking is not to demonstrate our knowledge of a subject, but rather to illustrate our level of ignorance. Such an inverse approach to problem analysis is unnatural for most people. The natural tendency is for people to use their analysis to confirm their initial choices and reassure them-selves that they were right all along. To think hard on a subject only to undermine the pillars of one’s choices is viewed by many as a waste of time. However, critical thinking should not be thought of as an effort to refute any particular choice or decision, but to balance evidence, reason, and options. Critical thinking may very well make it harder to choose between options, but the ultimate choice will be made with a fuller under-standing of the implications and consequences.
2.2.4 Developing as a Critical Thinker
Becoming a skilled thinker requires practice. Everyone ‘practices’ thinking, but the question is whether he or she is practicing good or bad habits. The mere act of thinking does not ensure that one is becoming an increasingly skilled thinker over time. As with every other set of skills, bad habits are easy to learn and difficult to break. To develop as a critical thinker, you must understand and then practice the necessary thinking skills.
To determine whether or not you are improving, you must judge your performance against a meaningful set of quality standards. It is much the same as the way one would advance in the development of any set of skills, in any sport or activity. Improvement comes from guided skill set development – instruction, practice, criticism, and more practice. Imagine trying to learn skills any other way. Would you ever become an excellent soccer player without being told what to practice or how to measure improvement? Would any parent launch a child’s soccer career by leaving them in a field without any idea of what the rules of the game were, the nature of the activities, or the level of performance of other players? Of course not, but this is exactly how thinking skills are developed. The average person, because of their routine mental activity (being conscious), presumes to become a skilled thinker by virtue of random chance – just like learning to play soccer by being left on a field with a ball. Thinking, like every other skill set, requires instruction in both the attributes (skills involved) and measures of success (quality measures).
2.2.5 Why Now?
If natural, intuitive thinking processes have served mankind adequately for eons, why change them now? What has changed to make critical thinking necessary now? The question can be answered best by rephrasing it. Do you believe that the thinking skills that were adequate for a shepherd in a primitive agrarian society are the same as for modern man in the information age? Most people would say no, of course not, and assume that mankind’s thinking skills have evolved with the technology around us. We intuitively believe that the necessary improvements in thinking skills that come with the need to succeed in a complex world, are acquired naturally (without much effort) through the public education system and as a consequence of exposure to mass media. The implications are that even in a modern, complex society we do not need to become any more skilled at thinking than natural (random) forces allow. It becomes a personal choice of whether you believe that a primitive caliber of thinking will continue to suffice or not. The problem is that the world is more complex Higher than average thinking skills are increasingly necessary if we, as individuals, are to succeed in a more intellectually challenging world. The rapid change that is associated with high tech and the information age requires that we think more clearly and more effectively, and make better decisions. We need to become critical thinkers to succeed in the ‘brave new world’.
2.2.6 Critical Thinking Is Not New
The intellectual roots of critical thinking date back to Socrates, who developed a method of probing questioning that forced people to justify their confident claims to knowledge. Socrates established that one cannot depend upon those ‘in authority’ to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking probing questions before we accept ideas as being worthy of belief. His method of questioning is now known as “Socratic questioning” and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. Socrates set the agenda for the tradition of critical thinking, namely, to reflectively question common beliefs and explanations, carefully distinguishing those beliefs that are reasonable and logical from those which – however appealing – lack adequate evidence or rational foundation to warrant our belief. Socrates was followed by the critical thinking of Plato (who recorded Socrates’ thoughts), Aristotle, and the Greek skeptics, all of whom emphasized that things are often very different from what they appear to be and that only the trained mind is prepared to see through to their essence. In the Middle Ages, the tradition of systematic critical thinking was embodied in the writings and teachings of such thinkers as Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica). To ensure his thinking met the test of critical thought, Aquinas systematically stated, considered, and answered all criticisms of his ideas as a necessary stage in developing them. During the Renaissance (15th and 16th centuries), a flood of scholars in Europe began to think critically about religion, art, society, human nature, law, and freedom. They followed up on the insight of the ancients. Francis Bacon, in England, was explicitly concerned with the way we misuse our minds in seeking knowledge. He recognized that the mind could not safely be left to its natural tendencies.
In his book, The Advancement of Learning, he argued for the importance of studying the world empirically. Some fifty years later, in France, Descartes wrote what might be called the second text in critical thinking, Rules for the Direction of the Mind. In it Descartes argued for the need for a special, systematic disciplining of the mind to guide it in thinking. In the same time period, Sir Thomas Moore developed a model of a new social order, Utopia, in which every domain of the present world was subject to critique. His implicit thesis was that established social systems are in need of radical analysis and critique. The critical thinking of these Renaissance and post-Renaissance scholars opened the way for the emergence of science and for the development of democracy, human rights, and freedom of thought.
2.2.7 The eloping as a Critical Thinker
Over the past ten years there has been an upswing in the amount of writing on the subject of critical thinking. It has become fashionable in business circles to pay lip service to the objectives of critical thinking. Unfortunately, high level critical thinkers still seem to be rare. Why isn’t such a logical and obviously beneficial practice catching on like wild fire? It’s because the process of becoming a critical thinker requires effort. It’s a progression, a learning process, and not a pill you can take. There is no quick fix. Critical thinking involves behavior, and behavior does not change easily. Development as a critical thinker requires the transition from being a first order thinker to becoming a second order thinker – from spontaneous unreflective thinking to self-analyzed and restructured thought processes. To become a critical thinker you must ask questions of yourself and everyone else. Critical thinking is questioning. It is drilling down to clarify meaning, eliminate inaccuracies, improve comprehension, and strive for intellectually honest results. To develop as a thinker you must recognize that thinking has structures and that those structures require understanding and practice in order for you to become adept in their use. You develop as a thinker when you begin to notice the way you are thinking and are able to recognize the strengths and weaknesses in that thinking. As your thinking improves you build an objective view of your own thinking. Reading this paper will not make you a critical thinker. It might, however, get you started.
2.2.8 Components of Critical Thinking
There are three components of critical thinking. The first is the structure of thought. We are better able to find errors in our thinking if we are able to take our thinking apart. The second is the standards for thinking. It is impossible to judge the quality of one’s thinking if there are no standards with which to compare. The third is ethics. As developing thinkers we should learn to recognize mistakes in our own thinking as well as in that of others, or we can focus our criticism on the thinking of others. Becoming a true critical thinker involves developing a sense of fair mindedness and applying the barb of our criticism evenly. It is through the analysis and assessment of thinking that critical thinking occurs. We must therefore be able to take thinking apart and analyze how we use each part. We can then judge each part of the thought process on the basis of standards and their application on the basis of intellectual ethics.
2.3 Structure of Reason
The structure of thought is also referred to as ‘elements of reason’, ‘parts of thinking’ and the ‘fundamental structures of thought’. The terms can be used interchangeably. Reasoning is the process of drawing conclusions based on reasons. We reason to make sense of something and to give it some meaning in our minds. Most reasoning is unconscious. Our reasoning only becomes apparent when we are challenged and forced to defend it. “I love boiled turnip!” Why? The elements of reasoning are present wherever and whenever reasoning takes place. Each of the elements needs to be understood if we are to reason effectively.
2.3.1 Thought Process
The elements of thought (reason) are all interrelated. They can never be completely isolated in our analysis but must always be considered in combination.
Whenever we think we think for a purpose
Within a point of view
Based on assumptions
Leading to implications and consequences
We use data, facts, and experiences
To make inferences and judgments
Based on concepts and theories
To answer a question or solve a problem
2.3.1 Elements of Reason
Thinking always has a purpose. It may not be monumental but when one is pondering, it is always about something and that something is generally a question that needs an answer – an itch that needs to be scratched. So, humans reason with a purpose. Most of what we are after in our thinking is not obvious to us. To understand thinking we must understand the function it serves and the direction in which it is heading. The process of critical thinking requires bringing our goals and desires into the light of conscious thought. We must be careful not to assume that our announced purposes are the same as our actual purposes. Are we buying an economical car or one that makes us appear successful? It is important to recognize that purpose is influenced by, and influences, our point of view. Our purpose colors the way we see the world and vise versa. Our point of view and hence purpose are affected by experiences. In the example of purchasing a car, our definition of ‘economical’ is unique, as are the qualities of a car that we might think of as implying success.
126.96.36.199 Question at Issue
The purpose of reasoning is to answer a question, find the solution to a problem, or make a choice. There is always a question that needs a resolution, however subtle. Reasoning always has a purpose directed towards an outcome in the form of a decision or choice being made. The product of reasoning can be a simple decision (such as a choice of what to eat), an inference (such as thinking that your spouse is mad at you), a judgment (such as your spouse is perfect), and/or a conclusion (your spouse needs a holiday).
188.8.131.52 Point of View
Point of view is the culmination of our experiences, biases, and training. It manifests itself as character or personality. We all view issues from a unique angle. There are many influences that in combination help to form our point of view. Among these influences are time, culture, religion, gender, discipline, profession, economic status, education level, and age. Critical thinkers take charge of their point of view by bringing it out into the open. They actively study and analyze situations from alternative points of view. “This is how I see it, but my competitor will view the situation from the perspective of ….”Asking questions that help to clarify the perspective (point of view) held by others is very helpful in understanding their thinking. The more points of view that we are able to incorporate into our thinking, the more balanced our reasoning will become.
All reasoning is based on the assimilation of information. This information can be in any number of forms, including generally known facts, things you believe to be facts, scientific data, opinions, gossip, and experiences. Since reasoning is based on available information, it seems only fair to ask oneself and others, “upon which information are you basing your reasoning?” The motto of critical thinkers is: “Check your facts and check your data. “Critical thinkers seek information when others would not bother. They question the information that is available as well as the information that others presume to have. Critical thinkers realize that conclusions can only be as good as the information that went into the thinking process by which those conclusions were formed. One of the most important skills in critical thinking is the ability to judge the quality of information. Information and fact are rarely the same thing. Maxim: “An educated person is one who has learned that information almost always turns out to be at best incomplete and very often false, misleading, fictitious and mendacious – that is, information is often just dead wrong.” Paul and Elders, pp 84. Critical thinkers have a healthy skepticism for the quality of information, particularly when it is presented in support of a belief that serves the vested interests of some organization.
Concepts are mental groupings of ideas that provide these ideas with a sense of order and relationship. All professions or disciplines (business, psychology, biology) have their own set of concept sand related technical vocabulary to make thinking and communicating in that profession easier (and even possible). Concepts underlie all of our understandings. For example, you must know the concepts of strike, ball, shortstop and mitt, to understand the rules of baseball. To develop as a critical thinker it is necessary to recognize the mind’s power to create concepts as a convenient way of managing complexity. It is over these types of short-cuts that you must train yourself to take charge. It is necessary to gain control of your conceptualizations because they are the foundations of your preconceptions and assumptions. The ability to ‘remove’ this or that idea from the concept that encompasses it allows you to test alternative ideas.
184.108.40.206 Assumptions and Bias
Assumptions are the things we take for granted as being true when we are figuring something out. They are part of our system of beliefs. We assume our beliefs to be true and we use them to interpret the world. Beliefs, and the assumptions that follow from them, can be justified or not justified, depending on whether or not there is good reason for these assumptions. Biases work like assumptions in the reasoning process. They help us to decide what to believe. Assumptions form the basis of inferences. We form inferences in order to make sense (quickly) of what is happening around us. Assumptions and the inferences that follow permeate our lives. For example, when we see a group of children heading towards a park carrying a football, we infer that they are going to the park and will play football together in the park, using the ball that they are carrying, and wearing the clothes that they have on. We might even assume that they all live nearby and are all good friends of about the same age. Assumptions and the inferences we make from them are everywhere. Critical thinkers must learn to deconstruct the inferences that have been made so that they become apparent to us. This mental dismantling allows critical thinkers to separate raw experience (what we know to be true) from the interpretations of that experience (what we automatically assume to be true).
Reasoning interprets information on the basis of what we believe to be true (beliefs and assumptions) in order to figure out something else. From assumptions we make inferences that lead to conclusions. Belief-assumption-inference-conclusion is the pathway of our logic. An inference is a step of the mind that leads to a conclusion. You study the financial reports of a company to make a judgment about its future performance. You believe that there is a governing body that regulates the content of financial reports and, based on that belief, you assume that the financial report is honest and accurate. The report suggests that sales for the company will rise rapidly over the next year and you infer that it is therefore a good company in which to invest. The analysis of the financial report embodies your point of view on the subjects of capital markets, investment strategies, and the honesty of written reports. It is very important to understand how one’s point of view and assumptions interact to create inferences. Critical thinkers recognize the inferences being made, the assumptions (beliefs) upon which the inferences are based, and the point-of-view that is brought to bear on the analysis. Being able to dissect thinking into these component parts and to recognize the inputs allows critical thinkers to broaden the scope of their outlook, see situations from multiple points of view, and to make better decisions.
220.127.116.11 Implications and Consequences
The implications and consequences of reasoning are that which follow from our thinking, or are where our thinking is leading. Implications are what might happen and lead to consequences, which are the outcomes that actually do happen. They can each be positive or negative in their outlook. The logical implication of what people say does not necessarily follow from their reasoning. If someone enters medical school because they want to earn a lot of money, they might tell themselves and others that their motivation is humanitarian instead. “Say what you mean, and mean what you say” is a principle of critical thinkers. Upholding this principle requires an honest appraisal of one’s real intentions and the intentions of others. Critical thinkers try to infer only what is implied by a situation – no more, no less. This requires an analysis of the all the implications inherent in a situation. The analysis must consider all the possible, probable, and inevitable implications that follow from our understanding of the logic of what is happening, plus a cautious look at what is implied by the communications with others involved. When you are told by a superior to get a report done “right away”, is she telling you to forsake quality (proof reading) in order to complete the report earlier? Is she saying that you work too slowly? Does she dislike you and look for ways to be critical? Is she being critical by implying that the report is late? Critical thinkers are careful to clarify what is intended from a communication and to make inferences based only on those intentions – no more, no less.
2.4 Interplay of Elements of Reason
The relationships between the elements of reason are non-linear.
There are no clear boundaries between the elements.
The parts function in an interdependent fashion like the segments of a body.
Having a point of view influences our purpose.
The nature of our purpose affects the kind of questions that are asked.
The kind of questions that get asked affects the answers/information gathered.
The information gathered influences the way it is interpreted.
The interpretation influences our assumptions.
From assumptions follow implications.
The implications that follow affect our point of view.
The point to remember is that all of the elements are always present no matter what the quality of one’s reasoning. The trick to becoming a skilled thinker is to practice making distinctions between the elements and to develop an understanding of the interrelationship of the elements within your thinking. It is a difficult task that becomes easier with practice.
2.4.1 Quality Standards
In order to advance as a critical thinker we must be able to assess the quality of our own reasoning. The thinking process must be taken apart (dissected into elements) and then the parts examined with respect to the quality of the analysis that has been applied to them. For example, we know to question the quality of data, information, and experiences that are being used within the reasoning process. But when are we to be satisfied with the data? What level of knowledge is satisfactory? How much consideration of the data should be included in our reasoning? The answers to these questions lie in the standards of thinking. Our reasoning improves as we ensure that the elements of reasoning that are inherent in all thought processes are judged on the basis of quality standards, including clarity, relevance, logical, accuracy, depth, significance, precision, breadth, and fairness. Critical thinkers keep standards in mind when thinking about our thinking. For example, when considering the basic question on which your reasoning is working, your reasoning is improved when the question has been clearly stated, is logical, and accurately reflects the objectives toward which your reasoning is directed. To apply the standards of thinking ensures that these conditions have been met. The standards of thinking ask questions about the reasoning process. These questions improve one’s understanding of the reasoning process and allow the quality of the reasoning to be judged.
2.4.2 Standards of Reason
Clarity- asking questions that focus on making thinking more clear by avoiding ambiguity.
Relevance- asking questions that ensure the discussion relates to the problem, question, or issue by keeping the thinking on track.
Logic- asking questions that ensure that all of our thoughts interrelate in a sensible fashion.
Accuracy- asking questions that help to identify the degree of opinion or guesswork in statements and claims.
Depth- asking questions that help to avoid the superficial – questions that dig beneath the surface of an issue to uncover hidden complexities.
Significance- asking questions that help to focus on the most important information, concepts, and ideas, rather than giving equal weight to all possible inputs.
Precision- asking questions that avoid generalities and therefore allow us to understand exactly what is at issue and what is known to be true.
Breadth- asking questions that ensure an issue is considered from all relevant viewpoints in order to avoid a narrow minded approach to reasoning.
Fairness- asking questions that ensure our thinking is justified, given the context in which it is being applied. Self-deception is an easy trap to fall into when there are vested interests at stake. Applying ethical standards helps to ensure that thinking is balanced in terms of the interests of others.
2.5 Elements of Standards of Ethics
So far, we have discussed the elements of reason and the standards of quality that are used to judge them. The third component upon which to evaluate one’s thinking is ethics. The reason that ethics need to be included in a discussion of critical thinking is that the intellectual skills that critical thinking helps to develop can be used for two incompatible ends. In effect, there is a good side and a bad side to their development. As you develop as a critical thinker you must be conscious of becoming fair minded rather than self-centered. It is everyone’s tendency to see mistakes in the thinking of others without being able to recognize the strengths in the other person’s thinking. For example, advocates of the Linux operating system readily see, and are quick to point out, mistakes in the Microsoft Windows operating system. Self-centered thinking, although it may have many of the hallmarks of critical thinking, is referred to as weak sense critical thinking. This is because it does not consider opposing viewpoints. It is not fair minded. Self-centered, or weak sense, critical thinking applies the standards of second order thinking(methodical analysis) to only a portion of the reasoning process. Like omitting the foundation in the construction of a building, it is unbalanced and likely to topple over. Unbalanced analysis undermines the quality of the entire reasoning process.
Sophistry is the traditional name for weak sense critical thinking. It is synonymous with the art of politics. One does not expect a politician to point out the weaknesses in their own campaign strategies or the strength of the opponents’. Strong-sense critical thinkers would. Weak sense critical thinkers are focused on winning arguments rather than being fair minded. They use emotional appeals and intellectual trickery in ways that appeal to people’s prejudices and fears. Strong sense critical thinkers strive to be fair-minded. They recognize the ethical aspects of reasoning. They make the effort to incorporate the viewpoint of others in their decision-making processes. They recognize high quality reasoning in others and are willing to change their views when confronted with better reasoning than their own.
2.5.2 Intellectual Ethics
18.104.22.168 Intellectual humility
Intellectual humility involves recognizing the limit of your knowledge and the distorting effects of your point of view. It boils down to not claiming more than you actually know to be true. Intellectual humility shows a lack of intellectual pretentiousness.
22.214.171.124 intellectual courage
Courage refers to your willingness to change beliefs. It involves the recognition of your negative biases and viewpoints, which allows you to give a fair audience to those ideas and concepts that are routinely pre-judged. It involves questioning society’s norms in order to develop your own opinion.
126.96.36.199 Intellectual empathy
This refers to the ability to put yourself in another person’s shoes. If you have empathy you can effectively incorporate the viewpoint, ideas, assumptions, and reasoning of others into your own thinking.
188.8.131.52 Intellectual integrity
Intellectual integrity is when you hold yourself to the same standards, reasoning and ethics that you expect of others. It involves recognizing the weaknesses in your own reasoning with the same fervor that you dismantle the reasoning of others.
184.108.40.206 Intellectual perseverance
Intellectual perseverance means not giving up in the face of complexity and frustration, or abandoning reason in the face of the irrational behavior of others.
220.127.116.11 Confidence in reason
Confidence means believing that reason will prevail. Confidence in reason is the conviction that with encouragement and cultivation, everyone can learn to think for himself or herself and be rational in the face of compelling evidence.
18.104.22.168 Intellectual autonomy
Autonomy refers to thinking for yourself in terms of developing your own set of opinions and beliefs and not being dependent on others for the direction and control of your thinking.